First Aid

Burn

Put burnt area in cold water for 20 mins

Nose Bleeding

To manage a nosebleed include: Reassure the person, especially children, as crying increases blood flow. Sit the person up straight and drop their head slightly forward. Apply finger and thumb pressure on the soft part of nostrils below the bridge of the nose for at least 10 minutes. Encourage the person to breathe through their mouth while their nostrils are inched. Loosen tight clothing around the neck. Place a cold cloth or cold pack over the person’s forehead and one around the neck, especially around the sides of the neck. After 10 minutes, release the pressure on the nostrils and check to see if the bleeding has stopped. If bleeding persist, seek medical aid. Tell the person not to sniff or blow their nose for at least 15 minutes and not to pick their nose for the rest of the day. (Having a nose full of clotted blood is unpleasant and children in particular may find it difficult to avoid sniffing or nose blowing for a few hours. Fifteen minutes will at least give some time for the clot to stabilise.)

Chocking

If the person is able to cough forcefully, the person should keep coughing. If the person is choking and can't talk, cry or laugh forcefully, the American Red Cross recommends a "five-and-five" approach to delivering first aid: Give 5 back blows. Stand to the side and just behind a choking adult. For a child, kneel down behind. Place one arm across the person's chest for support. Bend the person over at the waist so that the upper body is parallel with the ground. Deliver five separate back blows between the person's shoulder blades with the heel of your hand. Give 5 abdominal thrusts. Perform five abdominal thrusts (also known as the Heimlich maneuver). Alternate between 5 blows and 5 thrusts until the blockage is dislodged.

Fructure

Don't move the person except if necessary to avoid further injury. Take these actions immediately while waiting for medical help: Stop any bleeding. Apply pressure to the wound with a sterile bandage, a clean cloth or a clean piece of clothing. Immobilize the injured area. Don't try to realign the bone or push a bone that's sticking out back in. If you've been trained in how to splint and professional help isn't readily available, apply a splint to the area above and below the fracture sites. Padding the splints can help reduce discomfort. Apply ice packs to limit swelling and help relieve pain. Don't apply ice directly to the skin. Wrap the ice in a towel, piece of cloth or some other material. Treat for shock. If the person feels faint or is breathing in short, rapid breaths, lay the person down with the head slightly lower than the trunk and, if possible, elevate the legs.

Head Ache

Gently pressing these six pressure points can reduce stress and help ease headache pain. George Montes, a licensed massage therapist at the Sewall Healthy Living Center at Sharp Coronado Hospital, shows you how.